have string of research on how interconnectedness affects
global governance. In my earliest piece in this vein (6),
I examined the rise of an MFN treaty network in Europe in
the 1860s. The paradigmatic explanation is that this network
was a result of a top down process, where the hegemon (the
UK) pushed other countries to open up their economies. I argue
that the treaty network was the result of a bottom up process,
where one treaty led to others, etc., resulting in a dramatically
different equilibrium by the end of the 1860s than the beginning.
What I have explored in recent years is policy interdependence,
in particular, focused on regulatory policy. I have argued
(1, 3, 4) that there are three modes of policy interdependence:
competitive, coordinative, and informational. In the competitive
mode, states use regulatory policy to differentiate themselves
in competition with other states—e.g., for international
capital. In the coordinative mode, states benefit by having
the same standards as other states—e.g., to maintain
access to foreign markets. Finally, in the informational mode
(2), states are informationally interdependent, where the
experiences of one country provide lessons for others.
(1) David Lazer,
Domestic Interdependence: Modes of Interdependence in
Regulatory Policymaking," European Law Journal 12,
david_lazer(at)harvard.edu for a PDF or hardcopy of this
(2) David Lazer, "Regulatory
Capitalism as a Networked Order: The International System
as an Informational Network", Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science, 2005.
(3) David Lazer and Viktor Mayer-Schoenberger,
Networks", Brooklyn Journal of International Law,
volume 27, number 3, 2002, 819-851.
(4) David Lazer, "Regulatory
Interdependence and International Governance", Journal
of European Public Policy, April 2001, 474-492.
(5) David Lazer and Viktor Mayer-Schoenberger,
Blueprints for Change: Devolution
and Subsidiarity in the United States and the European Union," in Kalypso Nicolaidis and Robert
Howse (eds), The Federal Vision: Legitimacy and Levels of
Governance in the US and the EU, Oxford: Oxford University
(6) David Lazer, "The
Free Trade Epidemic of the 1860s and Other Outbreaks of Economic
Discrimination," World Politics, July 1999, 447-483.
**(For any of
the above articles without a link, please
for a PDF or hardcopy)