Research Papers

Competitive Market Models and Transitions to Competition

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The XIII Repsol YPF-Harvard Seminar on Energy Policy


Alexander, Barbara. "Should Ratepayers Subsidize Uneconomic Assets in Restructured Markets?" Presentation to the Harvard Electricity Policy Group's 82nd Plenary Session. Washington, DC, March 10, 2016.



Cicala, Steve, "Imperfect Markets versus Imperfect Regulation in U.S. Electricity Generation." January 22, 2017

Hogan, William W. and Pope, Susan L. Priorities for the Evolution of an Energy-Only Electricity Market Design in ERCOT. May 2017.

Energy Policy Group. "Competition in Bilateral Wholesale Electric Markets: How Does It Work?" Electric Markets Research Foundation, February 2016.

Hogan, William. "Electricity Market Design: Financial Transmission Rights." Presentation to the CIDE Electricity Policy Group. Mexico, April 14, 2016.

Hogan, William. "Virtual Bidding and Electricity Market Design." Electricity Journal, Forthcoming 2016.

Morey, Matthew and Laurence Kirsch. "Retail Choice in Electricity: What Have We Learned in 20 Years?" Electric Markets Research Foundation, February 11, 2016.

PJM. "Resource Investment in Competitive Markets: Technical Appendix." PJM Interconnection, May 5, 2016.

PJM. "Resource Investment in Competitive Markets." PJM Interconnection, May 5, 2016.




Caplan, Elise. "Responding to Prof. Hogan: APPA questions the benefits attributed to organized power markets." Fortnightly Magazine, February 2013.

Schmalensee, Richard. "Down a Long and Winding Road - How Far?" Harvard Electricity Policy Group 72nd Plenary Session, September 26, 2013. 10 pages.

Moler, Elizabeth. "Happy Anniversary HEPG: Where Have We Been? Where Are We Going?" Harvard Electricity Policy Group 72nd Plenary Session, September 26, 2013. 5 pages.

Flaim, Theresa. "Twenty Years of Electricity Market Reform: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?" Harvard Electricity Policy Group 72nd Plenary Session, September 26, 2013. 15 pages.

Massey, William. "Twenty Years of Market Reformation: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?" Harvard Electricity Policy Group 72nd Plenary Session, September 26, 2013. 9 pages.

Harvard Kennedy School Insight, Interview with William Hogan on Electricity Policy. September 30, 2013.

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Roach, Craig, Stuart Rein and Vincent Musco. "A Review of the Southwest Power Pool's Integrated Market Proposal." Prepared by: Boston Pacific Company, Inc., as an Independent Advisor to the SPP Board of Directors. December 30, 2010. 45 pages.

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APPA’s Competitive Market Plan: A Roadmap for Reforming Wholesale Electricity Markets. Electric Market Reform Initiative. February 2009. 48 pages.


Huntowski, Frank, Neil Fisher, and Aaron Patterson. Embrace Electric Competition or it's Déjà Vu All Over Again. The Northbridge Group, October 2008, 79 pages.

Review of PJM’s Reliability Pricing Model, prepared by The Brattle Group and the PJM Market Monitoring Unit, filed with the FERC on June 30, 2008.

Evans, Lewis, Graeme Guthrie, and Steen Videbeck. "Assessing the Integration of Electricity Markets
using Principal Component Analysis: Network and Market Structure Effects."
Contemporary Economic Policy, 26(1), January 2008, 145-161. (Journal of the Western Economics Association)

Williams, Paul. Why Electricity Market Redesign is Required. Presentation to the HEPG Fiftieth Plenary Session. February 2008. 8 pages.

Mansur, Erin T. and Matthew W. White, Market Organization and Efficiency in Electricity Markets. Draft paper.


Gribik, Paul, William Hogan and Susan Pope. Market-Clearing Electricity Prices and Energy Uplift. December, 2007. 46 pages.

Gribik, Paul. Market Pricing and Uplift: New Approaches to Known Issues. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Ninth Plenary Session. December, 2007. 18 pages.

O'Neill, Richard. It's Getting Better All the Time (With Mixed Integer Programming). Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Ninth Plenary Session. December, 2007. 26 pages.

Ott, Andrew. MIP-based Unit Commitment Implementation in PJM Markets. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Ninth Plenary Session. December, 2007. 6 pages.

Rothleder, Mark. Mixed-Integer Programming Solution at the CAISO. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Ninth Plenary Session. December, 2007. 7 pages.

Hogan, William. Electricity Market Hybrids: Mixed Market Designs and Infrastructure Investments. September 18, 2007. Presentation, 26 pages.

Hogan, William and Susan Pope. United States of America Before the Federal Regulatory Commission: Comments on Wholesale Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets. September 17, 2007. Paper, 30 pages.

Harvill, Terry. All The King's Horses and All The King's Men: Can Humpty Dumpty Be Put Together Again? 31 May 2007. Presentation, 22 pages.

Rosenthal, Joseph. Re-Building Humpty: Generation Planning for the Next Generation. 31 May 2007. Presentation, 15 pages.

Von Hoene, William Jr. All the King's Horses and All The King's Men: Can Humpty Dumpty Be Put Together Again?
31 May 2007. Presentation, 11 pages.

The Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force. Report to Congress on Competition in Wholesale and Retail Markets For Electricity Markets. 6 April 2007. Paper, 191 pages.

Faruqui, Ahmad and Ryan Hledik (The Brattle Group). The State of Demand Response in California April 2007. Report, 90 pages.

Tierney, Susan and Edward Kahn (Analysis Group). A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the New York Independent System Operator: The Initial Years. March 2007. Report, 52 pages.

Leuthold, Florian and Christian Todem. Flow-Based Coordinated Explicit Auctions: Auction Income Distribution 19 March 2007. Paper, 11 pages.

O'Neill, Richard. Just Prices and Contracting: An Update on a Three Millennium Debate. 15 March 2007. Presentation, 21 pages.

Sturzenegger, Federico. Contract? What is a Contract? 15 March 2007. Presentation, 11 pages.

Mukerji, Rana. Demand Response in Wholesale Electricity Markets. 15 March 2007. Presentation, 18 pages.

Meade, Dave. Praxair: Making Our Planet More Productive. 15 March 2007. Presentation, 21 pages.

Star, Anthony. Can Real-Time Pricing Be The Real Deal? 15 March 2007. Presentation, 15 pages.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Conference on Competition in Power Markets (free Webcast). 27 February 2007. The first in a series of conferences to examine the state of competition in wholesale power markets.

Glachant, Jean-Michel. Brown Out or Black Out in Europe in November 2006: to entertain ... with EU Colours Out? 16 January 2007. Presentation, 14 pages.


Sotkiewicz, Paul and Mario Vignolo. The Value of Intermittent Wind DG under Nodal Prices and Amp-mile Tariffs. December 2006. Working Paper, 7 pages.

The National Regulatory Research Institute. Journal of Applied Regulation, Volume 4: 30th Anniversary 1976-2006. December 2006, 90 pages.

Electricity Consumers Resource Council (ELCON). Today's Organized Markets - A Step Toward Competition or An Exercise in Re-Regulation? 4 December 2006. Paper, 5 pages.

Hogan, William. Electricity Market Restructuring: Markets, Market Design, and RTOs. 30 November 2006. Presentation, 27 pages.

Jones, Dan. Market Monitoring and Market Design. 30 November 2006. Presentation, 15 pages.

Ott, Andrew. HEPG Discussion: RTO: Fox or Hedgehog? 30 November 2006. Presentation, 10 pages.

Wilde, Dean. Electricity Markets Outlook. 30 November 2006. Presentation, 12 pages.

Kwoka, John. Restructuring the U.S. Electric Power Sector: A Review of Recent Studies. November 2006 (with addendum 7 December 2006). Report, 92 pages.

Shanefelter, Jennifer Kaiser. Restructuring, Ownership and Efficiency: The Case of Labor in Electricity Generation. November 2006. Working paper, 43 pages.

Harvey, Scott, Bruce McConihe and Susan Pope. Analysis of the Impact of Coordinated Electricity Markets on Consumer Electricity Charges. 20 November 2006. Paper, 49 pages.

National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. The Regional Transmission Organization Report Card: Wholesale Electricity Markets and RTO Performance Evaluation. 24 October 2006. Report, 160 pages.

DC Energy. Effects of 4/25/06 FERC RSG Order on Convergence of MISO Markets. 6 October 2006. Paper, 45 pages.

National Grid. Transmission and Wind Energy: Capturing the Prevailing Winds for the Benefit of Customers. September 2006. Paper, 26 pages.

The New England Energy Alliance. A Review of Electricity Industry Restructuring in New England. September 2006. Paper, 52 pages.

Joskow, Paul. Regulating Markets. 22 September 2006. Presentation, 22 pages.

Brown, Ashley. Load Serving Entities and Hedging: Critical Regulatory Issues. 21 September 2006. Presentation, 7 pages.

Connolly, Paul. To Hedge or Not To Hedge. 21 September 2006. Presentation, 42 pages.

Jurewitz, John. Regulation of Utility Power Procurement and Hedging Activities. 21 September 2006. Presentation, 14 pages.

Rose, Kenneth. Regulation and Hedging for Load Serving Entities. 21 September 2006. Presentation, 9 pages.

U.S. Department of Energy. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study. August 2006.

Chandley, John and William Hogan. A Path To Preventing Undue Discrimination and Preference In Transmission Services. 2 August 2006. Paper, 54 pages.

Michaels, Robert. Vertical Integration and the Restructuring of the U.S. Electricity Industry. 13 July 2006. Paper, 32 pages.

Hogan, William. Path Dependent Transmission Access. 9 June 2006. Presentation, 23 pages.

Schnitzer, Michael. Wholesale and Retail Electricity Market Models: Will They Mesh Well or Cancel Each Other Out? 1 June 2006. Presentation, 5 pages.

Reese, John. Wholesale and Retail Electricity Market Models: Will They Mesh Well or Cancel Each Other Out?
1 June 2006. Presentation, 21 pages.

Migden-Ostrander, Janine. Wholesale and Retail Electricity Market Models: Will They Mesh Well or Cancel Each Other Out? 1 June 2006. Presentation, 17 pages.

Sotkiewicz, Paul and Mario Vignolo. Towards a Cost Causation Based Tariff for Distribution Networks with DG. April 2006. Working Paper, 10 pages.

European Transmission System Operators (ETSO). Transmission Risk Hedging Products: Solutions for the Market and Consequences for the TSOs. 20 April 2006. Presentation, 14 pages.


ERCOT. The Market Guide: A Guide to How the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) Facilitates the Competitive Power Market. 1 January 2005. Paper, 82 pages.


Naumann, Steven. Active Markets and Reactive Policies: Requirements, Rules, Incentives and Business Models for Reactive Power. 2 December 2004. Presentation, 12 pages.

Hogan, William. Electricity Restructuring: Overcoming Market Failures Without Overturning Markets. 2 December 2004. Presentation, 16 pages.

O'Connor, David. What Price Reliability? Or How to Intervene in a Market When It May Not Be Failing. 2 December 2004. Presentation, 12 pages.

Edelston, Bruce. Slippery Slopes and Spider Webs. 2 December 2004. Presentation, 40 pages.

California Energy Commission. Documents and Reports for the 2004 Update to the 2003 Integrated Energy Policy Report. 20 October 2004. Links to final report, workshops and meetings.

PJM Industrial Customer Coalition. What Large Commercial and Industrial Customers Need from the PJM Marketplace . 14 September 2004. Paper, 9 pages.

Rose, Kenneth. 2004 Performance Review of Electric Power Markets . 25 August 2004. Review conducted for the Virginia State Corporation Commission, 170 pages.

Fleischaker, David. Electricity Restructuring: A Long Day's Journey Into Night? 7 October 2004. Presentation, 7 pages.

Ruff, Larry (Charles River Associates). A Transitional Non-LMP Market for California: Issues and Recommendations. 16 September 2004. Final report prepared for CAISO, 74 pages.

Mansur, Erin. Measuring Welfare in Restructured Electricity Markets. 3 September 2004. Presentation, 19 pages.

Bay Area Economic Forum. Lightning Strikes Twice: California Faces the Real Risk of a Second Power Crisis. Taking the Right Steps to Ensure a Powerful Future. August 2004. Paper, 28 pages.

Joskow, Paul and Jean Tirole. Retail Electricity Competition. 21 April 2004. Paper, 41 pages.

O'Neill, Richard (FERC). ISO As the New Utility: Why Are the States Deferring? 1 March 2004. Presentation, 24 pages.

Kleindorfer, Paul. Economic Regulation Under Distributed Ownership: The Case of Electric Power Transmission. 24 January 2004. Paper, 21 pages.


Fox-Penner, Peter. Efficient Grid Expansion and Participant Funding. 11 December 2003. Presentation, 14 pages.

Larson, Nathan and David Salant. Equilibrium in Wholesale Electricity Markets. 13 November 2003. Paper, 27 pages.

Lopez, Jeovani E. Santiago, and Marcelino Madrigal. Equilibrium Prices in Transmission Constrained Electricity Markets: Non-Linear Pricing and Congestion Rents. 1 November 2003. Paper, 18 pages.

Brown, Matthew and Richard Sedano (National Council on Electricity Policy). A Comprehensive View of US Electric Restructuring with Policy Options for the Future. June 2003. Paper, 100 pages.

Greenleaf, Steve. The Costs and Benefits of Cost-Benefit Studies: A Client's Perspective ("To LMP or Not to LMP"). 22 May 2003. Presentation, 20 pages.

Wolfram, Catherine. Cost-Benefit Studies. 22 May 2003. Presentation, 12 pages.

Ruff, Larry. UnReDeregulating Electricity: Hard Times for a True Believer. 1 May 2003. Presentation, 30 pages.

Rudkevich, Aleksandr. On the Supply Function Equilibrium and its Applications in Electricity Markets. 18 February 2003. Paper, 28 pages.

Brockway, Nancy. 2003 Electricity Competition: What Lies Ahead? 30 January 2003. Presentation, 11 pages.

Costello, Ken. Now What? 30 January 2003. Presentation, 18 pages.

Mansour, Yakout. The Future is Working. 30 January 2003. Presentation, 13 pages.

McNamara, Ron. Electricity Markets: Looking Forward. 30 January 2003. Presentation, 8 pages.

Zhou, Sam (Market Oversight Division, Texas PUC). Comparison of Market Designs. 7 January 2003. Paper, 113 pages.


General Accounting Office of US Congress (GAO). Lessons Learned from Electricity Restructuring: Transition to Competitive Markets Underway but Full Benefits Will Take Time and Effort to Achieve. December 2002. Paper, 74 pages.

Klein, Abram. Scarcity Pricing in Northeast ISOs: An Assessment of Market Performance. 14 November 2002. Presentation, 29 pages.

Klein, Abram. Affidavit of Abram W. Klein: Evidence of ISO-NE Market Performance in Support of Rejecting ISO-NE's First Level Mitigation Thresholds. 28 October 2002. Paper, regulatory affidavit, 15 pages.

Energy Information Administration (U.S. Department of Energy). Derivatives and Risk Management in The Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries. October 2002. Paper, 106 pages.

Ruff, Larry. Economic Principles of Demand Response in Electricity. Prepared by Larry Ruff for the Edison Electric Institute. The opinions and conclusions of the paper are those of the author alone. October 2002. Paper, 58 pages.


Mount, T.D., W.D. Schulze, R.J. Thomas and R.D. Zimmerman. Testing the Performance of Uniform Price and Discrimative Auctions. 16 July 2001. Paper, 32 pages.

Joskow, Paul. US Energy Policy During the 1990's. 11 July 2001. Paper, 105 pages.

McDiarmid, Robert. Looking Ahead While Looking Back: Markets, Theories, Price and Bid Caps and Other Things that Go Bump in the Night. 4 April 2001. Paper/Presentation, 11 pages.

Hogan, William. Coordination for Competition: Electricity Market Design Principles. 15 February 2001. Presentation, 40 pages.


Borenstein, Severin and James Bushnell. Electricity Restructuring: Deregulation or Reregulation? Program on Workable Energy Regulation (POWER) Working Paper, PWP-074, February 2000. 18 pages.

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Hogan, William. RTO (and CRT) NOPR: Desiging Market Institutions for Electric Network Systems. 24-25 May 1999. Presentation, 33 pages

Ruff, Larry. Competitive Electricity Markets: Why They Are Working and How to Improve Them. 12 May 1999.

Hogan, William. Restructuring the Electricity Market: Institutions for Network Systems. April 1999. Paper, 54 pages.

New Energy Ventures. Competitive Energy Service Market Model. January 1999. Presentation.


Hogan, William. Competitive Electricity Market Design: A Wholesale Primer. 17 December 1998. Paper, 59 pages.

Davis, Glen. Does the Presence of Reliability Must-Run (RMR) Contracts Exacerbate Irregularities in the Ancillary Services Markets? 10-11 September 1998. Presentation.

Emery, N. Beth. Reliability Through Markets: The California Model. 10 September 1998. Presentation.

Hirst, Eric. Competitive Markets fro Ancillary Services: Not Just a Nice Idea. September 1998. Presentation.

Kormos, Michael. Markets for Ancillary Services. 10-11 September 1998. Presentation.

Bushnell, James. Water and Power: Hydroelectric Resources in the Era of Competition in the Western US. POWER Working Paper PWP-056, July 1998.


Clark, Susan. "The Movement Toward Electric Competition: Who, What, Where, and Why." Presentation to the Harvard Electricity Policy Group, 12th Plenary Session, January 9-10, 1997.

von der Fehr, Nils-Henrik, and David Harbord. Competition in Electricity Spot Markets: Economic Theory and International Experience. December 1997.

von der Fehr, Nils-Henrik, and David Harbord. Capacity Investment and Competition in Decentralized Electricity Markets November 1997.

Wei, Jing-Yuan and Yves Smeers. Spatial Oligopolistic Electricity Models with Cournot Generators and Regulated Transmission Prices. July 1997.

Hogan, William. The Visible Hand in Electricity: Using a Pool to Expand Customer Choice. April 1997. Paper, 13 pages.

Block, Michael and Thomas Lenard. Creative Competitive Markets in Electric Energy: A Comprehensive Proposal. 17 March 1997.


O'Neill, Richard, Charles Whitmore, William Meroney and Marie-Beth Hall. Shibboleths, Loaves, and Fishes: Some Updated Musings on Future Oil and Natural Gas Markets. 31 December 1996.

Tranen, Jeffrey. NEPOOL Restructuring Proposal. 2 Auguust 1996. Presentation.

Hogan, William. WEPEX: Building the Structure for a Competitive Electricity Market. Address to the FERC Technical Conference concerning the Western Power Exchange Proposal. 1 August 1996.

Roy, Ellen. A Guided Tour to Unbundling. May 1996.

Strbac, Goran, E.D. Farmer and B.J. Cory. Framework for the Incorporation of Demand-Side in a Competitive Electricity Market IEE Proceedings. May 1996

Hogan, William. Reshaping the Electricity Industry: Multilateral vs. Pooling Approaches - Do 'em Both; Make 'em Voluntary; Keep 'em Consistent. 23 April 1996. Draft, 90 pages

Klein, Michael (World Bank). Private Sector Development Department: Competition in Network Industries. April 1996.

Tabors, Caramanis and Associates. The Market for Power in New England: The Competitive Implications of Restructuring. April 1996.

Electric Generation Assocation (EGA). Vision of a Fully Competitive Electric Industry. March 1996.

Kwoka, John (GWU Department of Economics). Vertical Integration and Its Alternative for Achieving Cost Efficienty in Electric Power. March 1996.

Burke, Michael. Fallacy Shmallacy. News From the Front, or Even Systems Need Their Space. 25-26 January 1996. Draft presentation.

Rudnick, Hugh, Ruy Varela and William Hogan. Evaluation of Alternatives for Power System Coordination and Pooling in a Competitive Environment. 1996.


ELCON. Road Map for the Transition. 22 December 1995. Executive summary and paper.

Joskow, Paul. Restructuring to Promote Competition in Electricity: In General and Regarding the POOLCO vs. Bilateral Contracts Debate Draft. 21 December 1995.

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. Settlement Agreement for the Development of a Single-Company Electric Power Spot Market. Proposal to the New York Public Service Commission. 6 October 1995.

Tranen, Jeffrey. Markets Deliver. 27 September 1995. Presentation.

ELCON. Summary of the Blueprint for Customer Choice Draft. 13 September 1995.

Budhraja, Vikram. A Competitive Electricity Market with POOLCO. AIC Conferences, "Hedging Electricity Pricing Risk," 27 April 1995.

Budhraja, Vikram. Competitive Electricity Market with POOLCO. Presentation to the Harvard Electricity Policy Group, January 26, 1995.

Tabors, Caramanis and Associates. Unbundling the US Electric Power Industry: A Blueprint for Change. March 1995.

Anderson, John. The Transition to Competition in the Electric Industry Draft. 22 January 1995. 22 pages.

Thomson, Robert. Economic Dispatch and a Competitive Electricity Market: A Comparative Review Draft. 8 January 1995.

Arnold, Robert. Restructured Regional Power Market GPUSC Draft. January 1995. Presentation.

Ring, Brendan. Dispatch Based Pricing in Decentralised Power Systems. 1995. Paper, 274 pages


Wall, Carter. Poolco: Design for a Competitive Bulk Power Market Edison Times. December 1994.

Hogan, William and Larry Ruff. Reshaping the Electricity Industry: Competitive Market Structure and Regulatory Policy ("Wisconsin White Paper") Draft. Prepared for Wisconsin Electric Power Company. 1 November 1994.

Ballance, John. Competitive Market Structures in Electricity. Presentation to the Harvard Electricity Policy Group Special Seminar, 23 September 1994.

Garber, Don, William Hogan and Larry Ruff. An Efficient Electricity Market: Using a Pool to Support Real Competition. The Electricity Journal, Vol. 7, No. 7, pp. 48-60. September 1994.

Hogan, William. A Competitive Electricity Market Model. Prepared for ABA-SONREEL Volume. Brown, Locke, Marritz, Vince, eds. Condensed version. 5 September 1994.

Pierce, Richard. The Importance of De-Integrating the Electricity Industry Draft. 11 August 1994.

Hogan, William. An Efficient Electricity Pool Market Model. Revision of 13 January 1994. 2 May 1994. Presentation.

Henderson, J. Stephen. Dimensions of Advanced Pricing Concepts. May 1994. Graph.

Flaim, Theresa. The Impacts of Emerging Competition in the Electric Utility Industry. 7 April 1994.

Massey, William. Transition to Competition: Federal Initiatives and Industry Opportunities. The Electricity Journal, pp. 26-32. January 1994.

Electric Generation Association (EGA). Electrifying Change: Strategies for Structural Reform in the Industry. Emerging Operational Issues Committee. 1994.

Chandley, John and the California Energy Commission. Descriptions of Competitive Market Models. Draft. 4 January 1994.


Abbott, Catherine and Jeffrey Skilling. Untitled Draft Presentation on Competitive Market Models (Two Parts).
Part 1 (15 pages) and Part 2 (12 pages). 1993.

Abbott, Catherine. Bilateral Negotiation Model of the Electric Utility Industry Draft. 29 November 1993. 10 pages.

Fitch Investors Service. Electric Utility Competition: A Survey of Regulators. 1 November 1993.

Hogan, William. Competitive Electricity Market Model. 9 October 1993. Draft (long version). 112 pages.

Fitch Investors Service. Electric Utilities' Competitive Risk. 12 July 1993.

Joskow, Paul and Richard Schmalensee. Effectiveness of Competition. In Joskow and Schmalensee, Markets for Power: An Analysis of Electric Utility Deregulation. Chapter 12. MIT Press. 1983.


Capacity Markets

Climate Change


Competitive Market Models and Transitions to Competition

Distributed Energy Resources

Electric Storage

Environment - Clean Air

EPAct and Predictions for the Future

FERC Rulings and Reports

Financial Markets

Financial Transmission Rights

Investment Incentives/Risk Allocation

Lessons from Abroad

Lessons from Other US Industries


Market Liquidity

Market "Manipulation"

Merchant Transmission

Mergers, Market Power and Anti-Trust

National Energy Policy

Natural Gas

Nuclear Power

PEV (Plug-in Electric Vehicles)

Public Power

Regional Transmission Organizations

Regulation, Governance and Judicial Review


Renewable Energy

Research and Development

Resource Adequacy

Retail Pricing

Scarcity Pricing


Smart Grid

Standard Market Design and Demand-Side Activities

State and Regional Activities

Stranded Benefits (Including Public Policy, Environment, DSM, IRP)

Stranded Investments, Assets, Costs (Including the Nuclear Question)

Technology Incentives

Transmission: Cost Allocation, Investment, and Planning

Wholesale and Retail Competition

Miscellaneous (Including Electricity Futures, Economic Principles, Financial Reform)