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We have created a list of related and readings which is available either as a direct link or a downloadable PDF document. Please note that while we have tried to maintain the links to most of these readings, some of the links might not work.

Note: this is only a description of some of the issues and ideas considered. For our official set of recommendations, see our BetterTogether report.

Putnam, Robert. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Simon and Schuster: New York, NY, 2000. [especially chapter 5]

Reich, Robert B. I'll Be Short: Essentials for a Decent Working Society. (Beacon Press, 2003).

Cohen, Don and Laurence Prusak. In Good Company: How Social Capital Makes Organizations Work. Harvard Business School Press, 2001.

Cross, Robert and Andrew Parker. The Hidden Power of Social Networks: Understanding How Work Really Gets Done in Organizations. Harvard Business School Press, 2004.

Lesser, Eric. Knowledge and Social Capital: Foundations and Applications. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000.

NEW: Thomas Malone. The Future of Work: How the New Order of Business Will Shape Your Organization, Your Management Style and Your Life ( Harvard Business School Press, 2004), describing how social networks increasingly grew with technological means


Evidence of Social Capital in the Workplace/Workplace Friendships

Fischer, Claude S. To Dwell Among Friends: Personal Networks in Town and City. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Lambert, Susan J. and Karen Hopkins. "Occupational Conditions and Workers' Sense of Community: Variations by Gender and Race." American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 23, no. 2, 1995. pp. 151-179.

Marks, Stephen R. "Intimacy in the Public Realm: The Case of Co-workers." Social Forces, March 1994, 72 (3): 843-858.

Marshall, Nancy L. and Rosalind C. Barnett. "Work-Related Support Among Women in Caregiving Occupations." Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 20, January 1992. pp. 36-42.

Trice, Harrison M. and Janice M. Beyer. The Cultures of Work Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.

Klein, Katherine J., and Thomas A. D’Aunno. "Psychological Sense of Community in the Workplace." Journal of Community Psychology, 1986 (14), pp. 365-377.

Is the Workplace the new locus of Social Capital development?

Poarch, Maria T. “Rekindling our Community Spirit." The Boston Globe (4/17/1997) Op-Ed piece.

Poarch, Maria T. "Ties that bind: US Suburban Residents on the Social and Civic Dimensions of Work." Community, Work & Family Vol. 1, No. 2, 1998, pp. 125+.

Wolfe, Alan. “Developing Civil Society: Can the Workplace Replace Bowling?” The Responsive Community (Spring 1998): 41-47.


Caudron, Shari. “Sexual Politics: Gender Relations in the Office,” Personnel Journal, Vol. 74, No. 5, p. 50 (May 1995).

Milliken, Frances J. and Luis L. Marines. "Searching for Common Threads: understanding the multiple effects of diversity in organizational groups." Academy of Management Review, April 1996, Vol. 2 1(2):402-422.

Rapoport, Rhona and Lotte Bailyn. Relinking Life and Work: Toward a Better Future. The Ford Foundation, 1996.

Swisher, Kara. "Diversity's Learning Curve." The Washington Post, February 5, 1995. pp. H1.


Work/Family Bond, James T., Ellen Galinsky and Jennifer E. Swanberg (Families and Work Institute), The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. 1998.

Galinsky, Ellen, and Arlene A. Johnson (Families and Work Institute). Reframing the Business Case for Work-Life Initiatives, 1998.

Hochschild, Arlie Russell. "Work: The Great Escape." The New York Times Magazine, April 20, 1997, Section 8. pp. 51-55, 81, 84.

Hunnicutt, Benjamin Kline. Kellogg's Six-Hour Day. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.


Handy, Charles. "Trust and the Virtual Organization." Harvard Business Review, May-June 1995, pp. 40.


Polsky, Walter L. “Telecommuting: Creating a Nation of Isolates?” Employee Services Management Magazine, May-June 1995.

Telecommute America News Release: “New National Survey Reports Sharp Rise in Telecommuting," July 2, 1997.

Stafford, Diane. “Telecommuting Raises Workplace Questions.” The Montreal Gazette, May 23, 1998, pp. I10.

Increasing shift to independent workers

Laubacher, Robert J. and Thomas W. Malone, “Flexible Work Arrangements and 21st Century Worker’s Guilds”. Working Paper #004 of the Initiative on Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century. Sloan School of Management, MIT. Oct. 1997.

Harvard Business School Case Study. "MacTemps: Building Commitment in the Interim Workforce." Revised January 6, 1997.


Changing Employer-Employee Relations/Trust

Farnham, Alan. “The Trust Gap” Fortune, Dec. 4, 1989: 56-62, 66-67, 74, 78.

Goffee, Rob and Gareth Jones, "What Holds the Modern Company Together?" Harvard Business Review, November-December 1996. pp 133-148.

Lee, Chris and Jean Bethke Elshtain. “Trust Me: Employees’ trust in their employers.” Training: The Human Side of Business 34(1): 28 (1997).


Standards and norms to promote community within office walls

Naylor, Thomas H., William H. Willimon, and Rolf Österberg. “The Search for Community in the Workplace.” Business and Society Review, 97:42-47 (1996).

Shaffer, Carolyn R. and Kristin Anundsen. Creating Community Anywhere: Finding Support and Connection in a Fragmented World. NY: Perigee, 1993.


Deutsch, Claudia H. “Commercial Property; Communication in the Workplace; Companies Using Coffee Bars to Get Ideas Brewing.” The New York Times, November 5, 1995 (1995).

Oldham, Greg. R. and Nancy L. Rotchford. "Relationships between Office Characteristics and Employee Reactions: A Study of the Physical Environment." Administrative Science Quarterly, 28 (1983): 542-556.

Reagor, Catherine. “Wide Open Spaces: Roomy Workplaces are the Latest Tools to Inspire Creativity,” The Arizona Republic, July 18, 1998, pp. E1.


Corporate Values /Corporate Philanthropy/Social Responsibility/Volunteering
Tobias, Randall L. Excerpts from speech: Global Transformations: Lessons for American Business. May 5, 1998. Radcliffe Public Policy Institute. pp. 3-17.

Roy Johnston, “Banking on Urban America,” Fortune, March 2, 1998, pp. 128-132.

Giving and Volunteering in the United States: 1996 edition. Independent Sector. Washington, DC. pp. 4:110-4:112.

“Companies Bring Strategic Approach to Volunteerism.” BSR Update, November-December 1997, pp. 1, 6-7.

“Businesses and Charities Alike Vow to Heed Presidential Call to Help Kids.” The Chronicle of Philanthropy, May 15, 1997, pp. 38-39, 41.

Levering, Robert and Milton Moskowitz. “The Ten Best Companies to Work for in America” Business and Society Review, 85 (Spring 1993): 26-38.

Novak, Michael. Business as a Calling: Work and the Examined Life. NY: The Free Press, 1996.

Family-friendly policies and employee support

Hammonds, Keith H. “Balancing Work and Family.” Business Week. Sept. 16, 1996, pp. 74.


Black, Sandra E. and Lisa M. Lynch. "How to Compete: The Impact of Workplace Practices and Information Technology on Productivity." Cambridge, MA: NBER Working Paper Series #6120, August 1997.

Cropanzano, Russell S. and K. Michele Kacmar. Organizational Politics, Justice and Support: Managing the Social Climate of the Workplace. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1995.

Crouter, Ann C. "Participative Work as an Influence on Human Development." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 5, 71-90 (1984).

Fantasia, Rick. Cultures of Solidarity. Berkeley: UCLA Press, 1988.

Greenberg, Edward S. Workplace Democracy: The Political Effects of Participation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Heckscher, Charles. The New Unionism. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press/Cornell University Press, 1996.

Price, Richard H. "Work and Community," American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1985. pp. 1-12.

Sobel, Richard. "From Occupational Involvement to Political Participation: An Exploratory Analysis." Political Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1993. pp. 339-353.

Tannenbaum, Arnold S. and Robert L. Kahn. Participation in Union Locals. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson and Company, 1958.

Team Management

Jackson, Maggie. “Chatting on Job Can be Training” AP Online. January 6, 1998.

“Strategic Labour-Management Partnership brings Saturn Car Plant Into Being.” Industrial Relations Survey Employment Review (U.K.), 652: 8-12 (March 1998).

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